Command & Conquer is a real-time strategy franchise started in 1995 by Westwood Studios and later continued by EA Los Angeles, Victory Games, EA Phenomic and EA Redwood Studios. The original game was one of the first RTS titles, laying the foundation for the entire genre and implementing mechanics and solutions that are still an inspiration for modern developers. Most of the titles in the series are available on PCs (Windows)Gameplay and game modesMost of the Command & Conquer games (with an exception of Command & Conquer: Renegade, a first- and third-person shooter) are a classic example of the real-time strategy genre, where the player commands his troops, collects resources, and develops infrastructure to destroy the enemy forces and their base. Most of the C&C games allow choosing between at least 2 different playable factions, with each having its own buildings, units, and abilities, making the gameplay more interesting and diverse. Command & ConquerThe first game of the franchise takes you to the alternate timeline, where the meteorite with a toxic substance called Tiberium crashes the Earth. The Tiberium becomes the highly demanded resource, for which the two playable factions, the Global Defense Initiative and the Brotherhood of Nod, are fighting over. The Covert Operations expansion pack adds a few single-player missions. Command & Conquer: Red AlertCommand & Conquer: Red Alert is a prequel to the first title and shows an alternative vision of the post-World War I events, where Albert Einstein travels back in time to prevent Adolf Hitler from starting the Second World War. The history takes an unexpected turn, however – with Hitler gone, Joseph Stalin grows in power instead. The Counterstrike and The Aftermath expansion packs add a lot of new units, missions, maps, and new, larger map size. Command & Conquer: Tiberian SunThis is the continuation of the events from the first Command & Conquer game. Nod’s leader, Kane, was presumed dead, but he resurfaces along with his new Tiberium-enhanced army. GDI has to secure the world’s peace once more. Meanwhile, another faction joins the conflict – The Forgotten. The game features 3 new types of Tiberium and relies more on the futuristic sci-fi tech. The Firestorm expansion pack revolves around the CABAL – a highly advanced artificial intelligence. Command & Conquer: Red Alert 2Command & Conquer: Red Alert 2 follows the story of the first Red Alert game. Soviets were defeated, and Allies installed a puppet premier to keep the Soviet threat at bay. The plan didn’t work well, however, and Soviets surprised the Allies with an invasion they were secretly preparing for quite some time. Now the two superpowers are fighting for domination once more. The Yuri’s Revenge expansion pack focuses on the Yuri, the former head of the Soviet Psychic Corps. It features 2 additional campaigns and a Yuri faction. Command & Conquer: RenegadeCommand & Conquer: Renegade is unique, as it is the only first-person shooter game in the entire franchise, in contrast to the RTS nature of the other titles. The player takes command of a GDI commando Captain Nick „Havoc” Parker on a series of dangerous missions during the final days of the First Tiberium War. Command & Conquer: GeneralsThe title takes place in the near future, where the terrorist organization of the Global Liberation Army opposes the two global superpowers – the United States and the People’s Republic of China. The Zero Hour expansion pack introduces 3 new campaigns, one for each side of the conflict, as well as 3 new generals for each faction. Command & Conquer 3: Tiberium WarsThe game follows the events from the C&C: Tiberian Sun – Firestorm. Brotherhood of Nod and Global Defense Initiative are facing each other once again in the war known as the Third Tiberium War. This time, however, the outcome of the war is not easily predictable, as the mysterious extraterrestrial race joins the battle. The Kane’s Wrath expansion pack re-introduces Nod’s leader, Kane. It also features an additional campaign, as well as additional sub-factions and a new game mode – the risk-like Global Conquest. Command & Conquer: Red Alert 3C&C: Red Alert 3 continues the plot shown in the Red Alert 2. After being defeated, Soviets decide to travel back in time to kill Albert Einstein, to prevent him from changing the course of events. The outcome is different from what Soviets were hoping for, however, and leads to the rise of the third superpower – the Empire of the Rising Sun. The game emphasizes naval warfare – many units are amphibious and trade the firepower and effectiveness for increased flexibility. The Uprising is a standalone expansion pack which adds 4 mini-campaigns and a 50-scenario long Commander’s Challenge mode. Command & Conquer 4: Tiberian TwilightThe last title in the bundle follows the story of the Tiberium Wars and takes place after the Third Tiberium War. The Tiberium grows rapidly and poses a threat to the entire Earth, forcing the eternal enemies of Brotherhood of Nod and the Global Defense Initiative to unite under the common flag. When the spread of the Tiberium was finally stopped, extremists from both sides started to cause unrest, leading to the Fourth Tiberium War. The game features single-player campaigns.Ultimate Collection contentsCommand and Conquer Ultimate Collection includes the following games: Command & Conquer Command & Conquer: The Covert Operations Command & Conquer: Red Alert Command & Conquer: Red Alert - Counterstrike Command & Conquer: Red Alert - The Aftermath Command & Conquer: Tiberian Sun Command & Conquer: Tiberian Sun – Firestorm Command & Conquer: Red Alert 2 Command & Conquer: Red Alert - Yuri's Revenge Command & Conquer: Renegade Command & Conquer: Generals Command & Conquer: Generals - Zero Hour Command & Conquer 3: Tiberium Wars Command & Conquer 3: Kane's Wrath Command & Conquer: Red Alert 3 Command & Conquer: Red Alert 3 – Uprising Command & Conquer 4: Tiberian Twilight
Stringent emission regulations aim to restrict soot emissions by particle mass and particle number in the transport sector. Whilst the concept of direct-injection gasoline (GDI) engines is very promising with respect to efficiency, complying with the legislative soot emission limits is challenging for GDI-engines. A sufficient reduction of soot emissions in GDI engines requires a detailed understanding and accurate modeling of soot formation processes of gasoline fuels in engines. This study provides fundamental investigations of the soot formation process of common gasoline surrogate components.Soot volume fraction profiles in laminar counterflow flames burning ethylene, n-heptane, iso-octane, and toluene were determined experimentally for a wide range of flame conditions. Simulations of these flames reveal that applied models are capable of predicting the soot volume fraction with remarkable accuracy for ethylene. For the gasoline surrogate components, however, the overall soot volume fractions are overpredicted. Reaction pathway analysis suggests that, in these flames, more soot precursors are formed via the reaction pathways involving fuel pyrolysis products.Furthermore, flame structure, local gas temperature, local soot volume fraction, and primary soot particle diameter were simultaneously detected by means of optical diagnostics in turbulent toluene flames. Joint statistics of flame and soot properties indicate that, due to differential diffusion of soot, high soot concentrations are present at conditions of low temperatures and low OH concentrations. In the soot oxidation region, the presence of large particles suggest that the oxidation is not sufficiently fast to burn soot completely.
Progressive reductions in vehicle emission requirements have forced the automotive industry to invest in research and development of alternative control strategies. Continual control action exerted by a dedicated electronic control unit ensures that best performance in terms of pollutant emissions and power density is married with driveability and diagnostics. Gasoline direct injection (GDI) engine technology is a way to attain these goals.This brief describes the functioning of a GDI engine equipped with a common rail (CR) system, and the devices necessary to run test-bench experiments in detail. The text should prove instructive to researchers in engine control and students are recommended to this brief as their first approach to this technology. Later chapters of the brief relate an innovative strategy designed to assist with the engine management system, injection pressure regulation for fuel pressure stabilization in the CR fuel line is proposed and validated by experiment. The resulting control scheme is composed of a feedback integral action and a static model-based feed-forward action, the gains of which are scheduled as a function of fundamental plant parameters. The tuning of closed-loop performance is supported by an analysis of the phase-margin and the sensitivity function. Experimental results confirm the effectiveness of the control algorithm in regulating the mean-value rail pressure independently from engine working conditions (engine speed and time of injection) with limited design effort.
High Quality Content by WIKIPEDIA articles! The Mitsubishi SUW (Smart Utility Wagon) is a series of concept cars sharing a common design theme, and first exhibited by Japanese automaker Mitsubishi Motors at the 1999 Frankfurt and Tokyo Motor Shows. The Smart Utility Wagon theme was introduced late in 1998 as a demonstration of the company's corporate slogan of the time, "Innovation in Motion", which was itself to represent "smart design" and "ecology conscious[ness]". Specifically, SUWs shared the company's gasoline direct injection (GDI) engine technology, a taller roofline for easier entry and exit, and interior space competitive with larger vehicles. The three individual vehicles Mitsubishi produced were the SUW Advance, a five door hatchback family car, the SUW Compact a three door hatchback small car, and the SUW Active sport utility vehicle.
Windows developers: a thorough understanding of the Windows API will enable you to create applications that are elegant, efficient, and powerful. Comprehensive and detailed-with over 140,000 lines of code included on the accompanying CD-ROM- Win32 Programming is your ultimate resource. Concentrating exclusively on 32-bit programming, it offers an in-depth look at the user interface and graphics aspects of the Windows API and demonstrates how to use the API effectively. In addition, many low-level operating system functions and facilities are covered. You will find comprehensive information on all aspects of Windows GUI programming, such as: Windows Controls, including the common control GDI, including new features like transformations and geometric pen Printing, including a reusable print engin Common dialogs, including customizatio Background processing, including synchronization In addition, the book covers such important advanced topics as creation of Dynamic Link Libraries, storage management, windows subclassing, the Multiple Document Interface (MDI), and threads and their synchronization. The CD-ROM is a gold mine of useful programs, with a C template you can copy to create your own Windows applications and dozens of programs called 'Explorers' written in C++/MFC that demonstrate the Windows API in action. The 'Explorers' let you tweak individual parameters of the API functions and immediately see the effects. More than just an introductory book, Win32 Programming is a reference to many of the more obscure and sometimes incomprehensible advanced features of the user interface and graphics subsystems. It is useful not only for C programmers but also for C++/MFC programmers because the API forms the basis for most MFC methods. The book's extensive and comprehensive index means you will never again have to search through pages of examples to find the example of the API function you want to see. This book is designed both to teach basic Windows programming and to be a useful companion for years to come.