The flow behavior of liquid fuel through injectors greatly affects its atomization and combustion efficiency inside an engine. A computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model is developed using the open source CFD library OpenFOAM to predict the fuel flow in injectors that are used in the gasoline direct injection systems (GDI). Additionally, a method is formulated to couple this model with fluids that represent the physical properties of gasoline-ethanol blends like E85.
High Quality Content by WIKIPEDIA articles! The Mitsubishi 8A8 engine is a range of V8 powerplants produced by Mitsubishi Motors since 1999. The only variant to date is the 8A80, a 4.5 L with double overhead camshafts and gasoline direct injection (GDI) technology. Financial pressures forced the company to discontinue sales of the Proudia and Dignity, the only vehicles in its range to which it was fitted, after only fifteen months. However, the two vehicles were developed in partnership with the Hyundai Motor Company of South Korea, with whom Mitsubishi has had a longstanding relationship. While Mitsubishi makes the cylinder heads and other GDI-related equipment, Hyundai casts the aluminium block, and other major internal components. Hyundai's version of the Proudia/Dignity, the Equus, proved more successful, and this has been the sole application of the powerplant since 2001. Hyundai replaced the engine with its newly developed Tau V8 in 2008 when the second generation rear wheel drive Equus replaced the first model.
The book A Basic Outline of Population Studies is a comprehensive and easy to understand a text, diagrams based discussion. This book begins with the Scope and Content of Population Geography, Demography, Terminology of Population Studies, Sources of Population Data, Various Measures, Age Composition, population growth, Migration and Urbanization, Population Policy, Population Projections, Geodemography, HDI, GDI, Sex-Ratio. And a perfect balance of concept, objectives, explanation to reinforce the proper understanding.At least, the author humbly hopes that this study will contribute to the increasing public awareness of the peoples to conserve the environment as well as our future and solve the population-related problems and increase the development of our society. He hopes any student will enjoy it.
MGDI technique, in which a low number of transistors are used to reduce the power consumption and area on chip of digital circuits. In this paper the full adder is introduced using MGDI technique. 2 bit comparator, full subtractor were introduced using GDI technique. Then these digital circuits were compared with traditional CMOS transistors in terms of power dissipation, number of transistors, area, speed and delay.
In this thesis work, a new technique for designing logic circuits called the Modified Gate Diffusion Input (MGDI) logic is discussed. This logic is adopted from the Gate Diffusion Input (GDI) technique. GDI was first proposed in the year 2002 for solving the problems associated with different CMOS logic styles. GDI cell can be used to implement wide variety of complex logic functions using only two transistors. GDI technique allows design of high speed and low power circuits with reduced number of transistors as compared to static CMOS and Pass Transistor Logic (PTL) techniques. This work aims to design a various high performance adders and multipliers.
This book introduces a Gate Diffusion Input (GDI) methodology as an alternative approach in digital circuits. In this technique, a wide range of complex logic functions can be realized by using a lower number of CMOS transistors. The advantages of using GDI technique are multi-folded. The first is to implement digital gates (i.e. inverters, NAND, NOR, XOR, XNOR, buffers, etc.) with very low propagation delay and high logic level swing. As a second advantage, the GDI-based circuits consume lower power consumption and chip area compared with the CMOS equivalent. This provides a new implementation of digital circuits which are suitable for longer-lasting portable devices, like smartphones, tablets, IoT, etc.. A third advantage is the simplicity of circuit design by using very small cell library. In this book, after a brief review of GDI specifications, we will discuss different architectures of GDI-based digital circuits that have been recently proposed.
High Quality Content by WIKIPEDIA articles! The Mitsubishi Dignity, whose name was derived from "the English to describe the peerless grandeur and majestic stateliness of the model", is a limousine manufactured by Mitsubishi Motors from late 1999 as the flagship of the company's domestic range, alongside the smaller Proudia luxury car. The entire Proudia/Dignity range was designed by Mitsubishi Motors and co-manufactured with Hyundai of South Korea, who marketed their own version as the Hyundai Equus. The Yen 9,990,000 Dignity featured Mitsubishi's 8A80 4498 cc V8, a 90-degree aluminium- block GDi engine producing 280 PS (206 kW) at 5000 rpm and 412 N m (304 lb ft) at 4000 rpm, and an extension of the Proudia's exterior dimensions in order to liberate more interior space for the rear occupants, the roofline was raised by 10 mm (0.4 in) and the wheelbase by 250 mm (9.8 in). The car was equipped with several advanced features like CCD cameras to monitor adjacent lanes and behind the car, and a laser activated adaptive cruise control.
High Quality Content by WIKIPEDIA articles! The Mitsubishi SUW (Smart Utility Wagon) is a series of concept cars sharing a common design theme, and first exhibited by Japanese automaker Mitsubishi Motors at the 1999 Frankfurt and Tokyo Motor Shows. The Smart Utility Wagon theme was introduced late in 1998 as a demonstration of the company's corporate slogan of the time, "Innovation in Motion", which was itself to represent "smart design" and "ecology conscious[ness]". Specifically, SUWs shared the company's gasoline direct injection (GDI) engine technology, a taller roofline for easier entry and exit, and interior space competitive with larger vehicles. The three individual vehicles Mitsubishi produced were the SUW Advance, a five door hatchback family car, the SUW Compact a three door hatchback small car, and the SUW Active sport utility vehicle.
Understanding highly complex nature of flow in an IC engine is essential to optimize its performance. However, the events like reciprocating motion of piston, motion of valves, turbulence generation, spray and mixing lead to a complex flow pattern. CFD is very useful in computing and understanding this complex flow pattern. In this book, all aspects of CFD technique to simulate the mixing of fuel with air in GDI engines are explained. The book covers the governing equations, numerical techniques for solving them, method of analysis of data (in the context of mixing processes) and programming techniques. The book will be useful for professionals who are performing CFD analysis using CFD softwares for thermal systems specifically reciprocating systems like engines, compressors and systems involving sprays, mixing etc. It is also useful for those who are developing CFD tools.